Inside Active Directory Mastering Active Directory for Windows Server Read more · MCSE Windows Server Active Directory Infrastruktur. a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other for both Active Directory and Microsoft Exchange Server. Logical Concepts of Active Directory. • Physical Concepts of Active Directory. • DNS in 10 Minutes. • Overview of Active Directory Replication. • The role played.
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Logical Concepts of Active Directory; Physical Concepts of Active Directory; DNS in 10 Minutes; Overview of Active Directory Replication; The role played by. Chapter 3 Introducing Active Directory. Windows Server Active Directory is the core component in a Windows domain environment. The Active. Differing Views of Active Directory. .. critical for security professionals to know in order to defend Active Directory. Many security professionals aren't very.
The OU is the level at which administrative powers are commonly delegated, but delegation can be performed on individual objects or attributes as well. Organizational units do not each have a separate namespace.
As a consequence, for compatibility with Legacy NetBios implementations, user accounts with an identical sAMAccountName are not allowed within the same domain even if the accounts objects are in separate OUs. This is because sAMAccountName, a user object attribute, must be unique within the domain.
However, two users in different OUs can have the same Common Name CN , the name under which they are stored in the directory itself such as "fred. In general the reason for this lack of allowance for duplicate names through hierarchical directory placement, is that Microsoft primarily relies on the principles of NetBIOS , which is a flat-file method of network object management that for Microsoft software, goes all the way back to Windows NT 3.
Allowing for duplication of object names in the directory, or completely removing the use of NetBIOS names, would prevent backward compatibility with legacy software and equipment.
Workarounds include adding a digit to the end of the username. Because duplicate usernames cannot exist within a domain, account name generation poses a significant challenge for large organizations that cannot be easily subdivided into separate domains, such as students in a public school system or university who must be able to use any computer across the network. Shadow groups[ edit ] In Active Directory, organizational units OUs cannot be assigned as owners or trustees.
Only groups are selectable, and members of OUs cannot be collectively assigned rights to directory objects. In Microsoft's Active Directory, OUs do not confer access permissions, and objects placed within OUs are not automatically assigned access privileges based on their containing OU.
This is a design limitation specific to Active Directory.
Other competing directories such as Novell NDS are able to assign access privileges through object placement within an OU. Active Directory requires a separate step for an administrator to assign an object in an OU as a member of a group also within that OU.
Relying on OU location alone to determine access permissions is unreliable, because the object may not have been assigned to the group object for that OU. A common workaround for an Active Directory administrator is to write a custom PowerShell or Visual Basic script to automatically create and maintain a user group for each OU in their directory. The scripts are run periodically to update the group to match the OU's account membership, but are unable to instantly update the security groups anytime the directory changes, as occurs in competing directories where security is directly implemented into the directory itself.
Such groups are known as Shadow Groups. Once created, these shadow groups are selectable in place of the OU in the administrative tools.
Microsoft refers to shadow groups in the Server Reference documentation, but does not explain how to create them. There are no built-in server methods or console snap-ins for managing shadow groups. Common models are by business unit, by geographical location, by IT Service, or by object type and hybrids of these. OUs should be structured primarily to facilitate administrative delegation, and secondarily, to facilitate group policy application.
Although OUs form an administrative boundary, the only true security boundary is the forest itself and an administrator of any domain in the forest must be trusted across all domains in the forest.
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Microsoft often refers to these partitions as 'naming contexts'. Second-level domains represent namespaces that are formally registered to institutions and to individuals to provide them an Internet presence. Figure 1 shows how a company's network connects into the Internet DNS namespace. DNS domains and Active Directory domains use identical domain names for different namespaces.
Each stores different data and therefore manages different objects. DNS stores its zones2 and resource records; Active Directory stores its domains and domain objects.
Domain names for DNS are based on the DNS hierarchical naming structure, which is an inverted tree structure: a single root domain, underneath which can be parent and child domains branches and leaves. For example, a Windows domain name such as child. The FQDN of a computer located in the domain child. Thus, domains and computers are represented both as Active Directory objects and as DNS nodes a node in the DNS hierarchy represents a domain or a computer.
The DNS server receives the name query and then either resolves the name query through locally stored files or consults another DNS server for resolution. DNS does not require Active Directory to function. Active Directory resolves domain object names to object records through requests received by domain controllers as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP 3 search or modify requests to the Active Directory database.
Active Directory does require DNS to function. At the practical level, to understand that the DNS and Active Directory namespaces in a Windows environment are different is to understand that a DNS host record that represents a specific computer in a DNS zone is in a different namespace than the Active Directory domain computer account object that represents the same computer.
Although separate and implemented differently for different purposes, an organization's namespace for DNS and Active Directory domains have an identical structure.
For example, microsoft. If you are using the Windows DNS service, primary zones can be stored in Active Directory for replication to other Active Directory domain controllers and to provide enhanced security for the DNS service. To locate a domain controller for a specified domain, Active Directory clients query their configured DNS server for specific resource records.
When an organization using Windows Server as its network operating system requires an Internet presence, the Active Directory namespace is maintained as one or more hierarchical Windows domains beneath a root domain that is registered as a DNS namespace. An organization can choose not to be part of the global Internet DNS namespace, but if it does so, the DNS service is still required to locate Windows based computers.
As shown in Figure 2, the root of the DNS hierarchy is a node that has a null label " ".
Active Directory Architecture.pdf
SRV resource records map the name of a service to the name of a server offering that service. Active Directory clients and domain controllers use SRV resource records to determine the IP addresses of domain controllers. DNS dynamic updates define a protocol for dynamically updating a DNS server with new or changed values. Without the DNS dynamic update protocol, administrators must manually configure the records created by domain controllers and stored by DNS servers.
If you choose to use a non-Windows based DNS server, you must verify that it supports the SRV resource records or upgrade it to a version that does support them. A legacy DNS server that supports SRV resource records but does not support dynamic updates must have its resource records manually updated at the time you promote a Windows Server to a domain controller. This is accomplished using the Netlogon.
Active Directory Creates Domain Controller Implementing and administering a network are tangible activities.
To understand how Active Directory fits into the picture at the practical level, the first thing you need to know is that installing Active Directory in a computer running the Windows Server operating system is the act that transforms the server into a domain controller. A domain controller can host exactly one domain. Specifically, a domain controller is a computer running Windows Server that has been configured using the Active Directory Installation wizard, which installs and configures components that provide Active Directory directory services to network users and computers.
Domain controllers store domain-wide directory data such as system security policies and user authentication data and manage user-domain interactions, including user logon processes, authentication, and directory searches. Promoting a server to a domain controller using the Active Directory Installation wizard also either creates a Windows domain or adds additional domain controllers to an existing domain.
This section describes what an Active Directory domain controller is and some of the major roles it plays in your network. With the introduction of Active Directory, Windows domain controllers function as peers.
Peer domain controllers support multimaster replication, replicating Active Directory information among all domain controllers.
The introduction of multimaster replication means that administrators can make updates to Active Directory on any Windows domain controller in the domain. For more about multimaster replication, see the section "Multimaster Replication.
Active Directory Tutorial
If you are creating the first domain controller for a new installation, several entities come into being automatically at the same time that Active Directory is loaded. Global Catalog The Windows operating system introduces the global catalog, a database kept on one or more domain controllers.
The global catalog plays major roles in logging on users and querying. By default, a global catalog is created automatically on the initial domain controller in the Windows forest, and each forest must have at least one global catalog. If you use multiple sites, you may wish to assign a domain controller in every site to be a global catalog, because a global catalog which determines an account's group membership is required to complete the logon authentication process. This refers to a native-mode domain.
Mixed- mode domains do not require a global catalog query for logon. After additional domain controllers are installed in the forest, you can change the default location of the global catalog to another domain controller using the Active Directory Sites and Services tool. You can optionally configure any domain controller to host a global catalog, based on your organization's requirements for servicing logon requests and search queries. More global catalog servers provide quicker responses to user inquiries; the trade-off is that enabling many domain controllers as global catalog servers increases the replication traffic on the network.
In a native-mode domain, the global catalog enables network logon for Active Directory clients by providing universal group membership information6for the account sending the logon request to a domain controller.
In fact, not just users but every object authenticating to Active Directory must reference the global catalog server, including every computer that boots up.
In a multi-domain setup, at least one domain controller that contains the global catalog must be running and available in order for users to log on. A global catalog server must also be available when a user logs on with a non-default user principal name UPN. If a global catalog is not available when a user initiates a network logon process, the user is able to log on only to the local computer not to the network.
The only exception to this is that users who are members of the domain administrators Domain Admin group are able to log on to the network even when a global catalog is not available.
In a forest that contains many domains, the global catalog lets clients quickly and easily perform searches across all domains, without having to search each domain individually. The global catalog makes directory structures within a forest transparent to end-users seeking information. Most Active Directory network traffic is query-related: users, administrators, and programs requesting information about directory objects.
How does Active Directory work? The way I have always picture AD is that of a phone book. A phone book basically matches names to phone numbers, Active Directory matches user accounts to network objects and resources. One significant difference of AD is that it saves objects in a hierarchical order, and all objects are unique.
Active Directory Components When discussing or learning Active Directory there are some terms you need to be familiar with: Domain Controller a domain controller is the server where AD is installed.
Forest A forest is the highest level of the logical structure hierarchy. An Active Directory forest represents a single self-contained directory. A forest is a security boundary, which means that administrators in a forest have complete control over all access to information that is stored inside the forest and to the domain controllers that are used to implement the forest Tree Trees are a cohesive group of domains, known as subdomains or child domains, that grow from a root domain.
All the domains within a tree share a contiguous namespace Schema The Active Directory schema contains definitions for all the objects that are used to store information in the directory.The Windows NTFS file system forms a namespace in which the name of a file can be resolved to the file itself.
If you do not specify a user or group, only members of the Domain Admins group or the Enterprise Admins group will be able to attach the server to the account. When you create the first domain in a new forest, all five of the single master operations roles are automatically assigned to the first domain controller in that domain.
You can remove a domain from the forest only if it has no child domains. For example, If we create short cut trust between two domains of different trees, they can quickly authenticate each other without traveling through the entire parent domains.
In a complete LDAP DN, the RDN of the object to be identified appears at the left with the name of the leaf, and it ends at the right with the name of the root, as shown in this example: The introduction of multimaster replication means that administrators can make updates to Active Directory on any Windows domain controller in the domain.
Attributes in a global catalog are replicated to all other global catalogs in the forest. For more information about which options on this page are available or not available under different conditions, see Domain Controller Options.
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